Thanks to the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement, countries have agreed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere continues to rise and is heating the planet at an alarming rate. Scientists warn that this warming, if it continues unabated, could lead to environmental disasters in much of the world, including shocking sea level rise, record droughts and floods, and widespread species losses. Experts, activists and citizens are increasingly concerned about the lack of ambition or urgency of the commitments made by countries under these global agreements. For most state parties, 1990 is the base year for the national GHG stock and the calculation of the amount allocated.  However, five States Parties have an alternative base year: Views on the Kyoto Protocol contain a list of emission reductions proposed by the parties to the UNFCCC during the negotiations. The G77 and China have spoken out in favour of strong, uniform emission reductions in industrialized countries.  Initially, the United States had proposed for the second round of negotiations on the Kyoto commitments in order to follow the negotiations of the first.  Ultimately, negotiations on the second period are expected to begin in 2005 at the latest.  Countries that exceeded their obligations in their first period may “bankrupt” their quotas not used for use in the following period.  The protocol implemented the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). 192 nations have pledged to reduce their emissions by an average of 5.2% by 2012, which would account for about 29% of global emissions.
The natural, technical and social sciences can provide information on decisions made regarding this objective, including the possible magnitude and rate of future climate change.  However, the IPCC also concluded that the decision on what constitutes “dangerous” interference will require value judgments that will vary from region to region of the world.  Factors that may influence this decision include the local effects of the effects of climate change, the ability of a given region to adapt to climate change (adaptive capacity) and a region`s ability to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions (mitigative capacity).  Under Kyoto, developed countries committed to reducing their annual CO2 emissions, measured in six greenhouse gases, by an average of 5.2% in 2012 compared to 1990.